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機械加工中提率的工藝有哪些?

時間:2020-02-21
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制訂機械加工工藝規程的基本原則是優質、、低成本,即在零件質量要求的前提下,盡量提高勞動生產率和降低成本。
The basic principle of formulating machining process regulations is high quality, high efficiency and low cost, that is, to improve labor productivity and reduce costs as far as possible under the premise of guaranteeing the quality requirements of parts.
勞動生產率是指在單位時間內制造出合格產品的數量,或者是指用于制造單件合格產品所消耗的時間。
Labor productivity refers to the quantity of qualified products manufactured in a unit time, or the time spent in manufacturing individual qualified products.
經濟性是指機械加工中用更少的費用制造出合格的產品。
Economy refers to the production of qualified products at the least cost in mechanical processing.
1.縮減基本時間
1. reduce basic time
提高勞動生產率的工藝途徑
Technological Ways to Improve Labor Productivity
(1)提高切削用量。增大切削速度、進給量和背吃刀量,都可縮短基本時間,但切削用量的提高受到刀具耐用度和機床功率、工藝系統剛度等方面的制約。
(1) Increase the cutting parameters. Increasing the cutting speed, feed rate and back feed rate can shorten the basic time, but the improvement of cutting parameters is restricted by tool durability, machine power and stiffness of process system.
(2)減少或重合切削行程長度。
(2) Reduce or coincide the length of cutting stroke.
(3)采用多件加工。這種方法是通過減少刀具的切入、切出時間或者使基本時間重合,從而縮短每個零件加工的基本時間來提高生產率的。多件加工的方式有以下三種:順序多件加工、平行多件加工及平行順序多件加工,如圖1-11所示。
(3) Multi-piece processing. This method improves productivity by reducing cutting time or coinciding basic time of cutting tool, thus shortening the basic time of processing each part. There are three ways of multi-part processing: sequential multi-part processing, parallel multi-part processing and parallel sequential multi-part processing, as shown in Figure 1-11.
2.減少輔助時間
2. reduce auxiliary time
(1)采用先進夾具縮短工件裝卸時間。大批量生產時,廣泛采用氣動、液動夾具來縮短工件裝卸的時間。單件小批量生產中,由于受專用夾具制造成本的限制,為縮短裝卸工件的時間,可采用組合夾具及可調夾具。
(1) Using advanced fixture to shorten the loading and unloading time of workpiece. In mass production, high efficiency pneumatic and hydraulic fixtures are widely used to shorten the loading and unloading time of workpieces. In small batch production, due to the limitation of manufacturing cost of special fixture, modular fixture and adjustable fixture can be used to shorten the time of loading and unloading workpieces.
 
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(2)采用轉位夾具、轉位工作臺、直線往復式工作臺等。
(2) The use of transposition fixture, transposition table, linear reciprocating table, etc.
(3)采用連續加工,如圖1-12所示。
(3) Continuous processing is adopted, as shown in Fig. 1-12.
(4)采用多種快速換刀、自動換刀裝置。
(4) Various quick tool changing and automatic tool changing devices are adopted.
(5)采用主動檢測或數字顯示自動測量裝置。
(5) The automatic measuring device with active detection or digital display is adopted.
提高勞動生產率的工藝途徑
Technological Ways to Improve Labor Productivity
3.減少調整時間
3. reduce the adjustment time.
(1)使刀具和夾具調整通用化。
(1) Make tool and fixture adjustment universal.
(2)采用可換刀架或刀夾。
(2) Use changeable tool holder or clamp.
(3)采用刀具的微調和快調。
(3) Fine tuning and fast tuning with cutting tools.
(4)減少夾具的安裝找正時間。
(4) Reduce fixture installation alignment time.
(5)采用調整時間極少的先進設備。
(5) Adopt advanced equipment with little adjustment time.
4.實施多臺機床看管
4. Implementing multi-machine tool custody
5.采用新工藝、新技術
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